Assembly language and machine language;
example: the basic RISC-V Instruction Set.
Elementary Assembly programming:
if-then-else, loops, arrays, pointers,
and introduction to the run-time stack, procedure calls,
and caller/callee-saved registers.
Processor implementation using
registers, multiplexors, adders, ALU's, memories, and combinatorial logic.
Datapath and control unit design.
Pipelining: the classical 5-stage in-order pipeline,
with dependence detection and internal forwarding.
Processor performance, CPI and related equations.
introduction to Cache memories.
User-kernel mode, system call, protection.
and their communication with the central unit.
Polling, interrupts, DMA.